關係子句:
• 何謂關係子句?
  關係子句,亦稱形容詞子句。把原來一個完整的句子,拿來放在另一句話中,當成形容詞用,即為關係子句(把一句話轉換成一個形容詞)。請看下面中文的例子:
1. 那個男人是我哥。
2. 那個男人在講電話。 →那個在講電話的男人是我哥。
  通常沒有人會依序把1和2句講出來,而是直接講合併起來的那一句。在此,我們其實就是把第2句原來完整的一句話改成形容詞用。這兩句話翻成英文會變成:
3. The man is my brother.
4. The man is talking on the phone. →The man who is talking on the phone is my brother.
  此處,我們就是把第4句修改成who is talking on the phone,讓它變成一個關係子句,有形容詞的功用,放在第3句中,形成上面合併過的句子。

• 關係子句的形成
  我們先看下面的例子:
1. I bought three books.
2. Those books are about English grammar. →I bought three books which are about English grammar.
  我們把第1句當成主要子句,把第2句修改成關係子句來修飾第1句。首先,我們要先找出這兩句的共同原素:three books(雖然用字不同,但第2句的those books就是指第一句的three books),由此知第2句是用來修飾第1句的three books這部分,它讓我們知道這三本書是關於哪一方面的書。
  接下來,若要將第2句變成具形容詞功用的關係子句,必須先將共同的原素換成關係代名詞,如果該名詞/代名詞是人,其關係代名詞是who,物(非人)的話則是which。關於關係代名詞請見下表:
先行詞 主格 所有格 受格
人 who whose whom/who
物 which whose which
人或物/人+物 that X that



  先把第2句的those books改成which,整句就變成which are about English grammar.,這樣就形成一個關係子句。接下來再將它放到第1句中所要修飾的名詞three books的後面,就變成I bought three books which are about English grammar.,就合併成一個具有關係子句的句子了。
  再來看看幾個例子。
3. The girl is my sister.
4. The girl is watching TV. → The girl who is watching TV is my sister.
  把第4句的the girl改成who,然後把who is watching TV接在當成主要子句的第3句中the girl後面作修飾。
5. I like the book.
6. You bought the book yesterday. → I like the book which you bought yesterday.
  兩句相同的部分是the book,因此要把the book變成which (you bought which yesterday),然後再移到最前面,變成which you bought yesterday。最後再放到主要子句第5句中the book的後面。在這一個例子中,我們要移動which的原因是,關係代名詞本身有連接的作用,它用來連結主要子句和關係子句,第6句把共同的部分改成which後,變成you bought which yesterday,不能直接接到第5句的the book後面,因為如此一來兩者之間沒有連接詞,所以要先把which拉到最前面變成which you bought yesterday,才可以接到第5句形成一個句子。
  以下是另一個受格的用法:
7. Those boys are my students.
8. You met those boys yesterday. →Those boys whom you met yesterday are my students.
  如果關係子句中的關係代名詞所代替的是一個受詞,那麼要用受格的whom,不過通常會用who代替whom,特別是在口語時。只有在它前面有介系詞時不適合用who,這一點後面會談到。
  再來看所有格whose 的用法:
9. The boy is my brother.
10. The boy's jacket is red. →The boy whose jacket is red is my brother.
  在9/10句中,重複的部分是the boy,但在第10句中是一個所有格the boy's,此時就不能用who來取代,而要用所有格的關係代名詞whose取代the boy's。不管是人或是物,都可以用whose來代替。

• that的用法及關係子句的限定與補述功能
  前面說過,關係子句的功用在於修飾,但是還是有分別。請先看下面兩個例句:
1. The man who is talking on the phone is my brother.
2. Steve Nash, who is a great basketball player, is very famous in Taiwan.
  在第1句中,who is talking on the phone的作用除了修飾the man以外,還有幫忙限定的作用。也就是說那邊可能有很多個男人,我要說的是「正在講電話的」那個,不是別的。關係子句的部分限定住了主詞the man的範圍。如果我們把關係子句拿掉,和原來的意思就會有出入了,因為如此一來聽話者就不知道究竟在說哪個男人了。
  但是在第2句中,就算我們把who is a great basketball player刪掉,主詞Steve Nash仍然是Steve Nash,不會變成別人,因此who is a great basketball player只有補充說明的功用,沒有限定的功用。
  那麼,這和我們要講的that 的用法有何關聯呢?首先,that這個字本身就具有強烈的指示、限定作用,在一般情況下中文翻成「那個」,也就是不是這個,也不是別的,就是我指的「那個」。譬如I need a book.是我需要一本書,沒有指定哪一本,但如果我說I need that book.就變成需要特定的那一本書了。所以如果我們所用的關係子句是屬於有限定功能的,我們就可以用that 來代替原來的who或which。
  但如果關係子句只是補充說明而完全沒有限定的功能,就不能夠使用that,而且在寫法上,補充說明功能的關係子句,必須用逗點, 括起來。
  接下來,請試著由下面兩句判斷究竟說話者有幾個兄弟:
3. My brother who lives in Taipei will come back next week
4. My brother, who is a teacher, will come back tomorrow.
  看出來了嗎?兩句的主詞都是my brother,但是其中一句說話者只有唯一的一個brother,另一句的說話者至少有兩個。
  在第3句中,既然使用限定用法(沒有逗點),表示一定有兩個以上的兄弟才需要限定,這樣聽者才知道究竟在講哪一個。該句的中文是:我那個住在台北的兄弟下週會回來(或者說我的兄弟中住台北的那個下週會回來)。這句的who可以用that代替(但通常比較常用who,若是非人的關係代名詞which用在限定用法時,就常會用that代替)。
  第4句則是補充說明的用法,也就是說我不用限定是哪個兄弟,聽者就知道是哪個,因為我只有一個。中文是:我兄弟明天要回來,而他是個老師。這句的who就不能用that代替了。
  另外還有一些情況必須用that:
A. 所要修飾的名詞是「人+事/物」時
5. The man and his dog that are crossing the street do not live in this town.
  人用who,非人用which,有人又有非人,就只得用that。
B. 所要修飾的名詞前面具有限定意味的修飾語時
  所修飾的名詞人有最高級的形容詞時,因為限定意味很明顯,所以關係代名詞就要用that。如果有其他限定語如:the only, the very, the same, the first, no/nothing, any/anything, some/something, all…等,也較常用that。因為上述的詞都有限定作用,要搭配同樣有限定作用的that 來使用比較好。
6. He is the only friend that I have.
7. There is nothing that you can complain about.
8. Give me something that I can read on the plane.
  這幾句的that都不能改成who或which。但事實上,以上三句的that通常都會被省略。關係代名詞的省略後面會談。

• 關係副詞
  關係子句中除了上面提到的幾個關係代名詞外,還有所謂的關係副詞:when, where, how, why。請先看下面的例子:
1. You should tell me the day when he will come back.
2. This is the house where I have lived for many years.
3. This is the way how I solve all problems.
4. Can you tell me the reason why you did so?
  先把第1句拿來拆開講解:
 1a. You should tell me the day.
 1b. He will come back on the day(when).
  重複的部分是the day,在第二句中,the day前有on,合起來on the day是一個副詞片語,此時有兩種作法:一是保留on,把真正重複的the day改成which,合併後會變成You should tell me the day which he will come back on.(通常會把句尾的on拿到which前面),或是把整個副詞on the day改成關係副詞when,變成上面的第一句。其他三個關係副詞可類推,就不再詳述。
  但是,如果在原來被改成關係子句的句子中,the day不是處於副詞的位置,而是受詞的話,就不可以用關係副詞,如下面的例子:
5. This is the house that I bought last month.
  這一句就不能用where取代that,請先看下面拆開的兩句:
 5a. This is the house.
 5b. I bought the house last month.
  兩句重複的部分是the house,而the house在b句的部分並不是副詞(或副詞片語中的受詞),它只是bought這個動詞的受詞,因此無法以關係副詞where來取代它,只能以關係代名詞that或which來取代這個名詞(當受詞的名詞)。

• 介系詞的提前
  我想有不少學生都曾經在考試時被一堆in which、at which、to whom之類的介系詞加關係代名詞的東西搞得很煩,在此要告訴大家介系詞如何提前以及如何判斷是否有或要用哪一個介系詞。照例先來個例子:
1. Here comes a man.
2. I am waiting for the man. (→who I am waiting for) →Here comes the man who I am waiting for.
→Here comes the man for whom I am waiting.
  把第1和第2句合併成一句後,如果有一個介系詞留在最後,通常會把這個介系詞拿到關係代名詞前面,即第2句改成for whom I am waiting,再接到主要子句上面。通常這種情況是句中使用了需要介系詞的動詞,其結構是主詞+動詞+介系詞+受詞,而兩個未合併前的句子重複的部分是受詞,要將受詞改成關係代名詞後,把介系詞和關係代名詞一起拿到最前面。
  另外有一種情況可以把介系詞+關係代名詞改成關係副詞:
3. This is an apartment
4. I have lived in the apartment for 7 years. →This is the apartment which I have lived in for 7 years.
→This is the apartment in which I have lived for 7 years.
→This is the apartment where I have lived for 7 years.
  在這種句子中,關係代名詞所代替的名詞在原來的句子(在此指第4句)加上前面的介系詞後(in the apartment)是一個副詞片語,因此若是指地方,可用where代替in which。其實這一點在上面的關係副詞就有講過了。
  以下提供更多介系詞加關係代名詞的例子供大家參考:
5. I don't know the reason.
6. He told a lie for the reason. →I don't know the reason which he told a lie for.
→I don't know the reason for which he told a lie.
→I don't know the reason why he told a lie.
  在這個例子中請愛用why,上面兩個非常少見且奇怪,為了講解才使用。不過其實還有一種更簡略的講法:I don't know why he told a lie,但是這其實是名詞子句,請參考名詞子句那一章。
7. I bought a nice fish tank.
8. The fish can live in the fish tank. →I bought a nice fish tank in which the fish can live.
→I bought a nice fish tank where the fish can live.
9. He is a man.
10. We like to talk about the man. →He is the man who we like to talk about.
→He is the man about whom we like to talk.
11. The party was interesting.
12. I went to the party. →The party which I went to was interesting.
→The party to which I went was interesting.
一般來說都比較傾向於把介系詞提前,在上面的例子中兩種都寫出來,只是為了講解。

• noun of which;most/some of which
  先看例子比較能了解這一部分在講什麼,因為在這一部分,我想不出一個清楚明白的標題。
1. I bought many books.
2. Some of the books are novels. →I bought many books, some of which are novels.
  此處兩句共同的部分是many books,但在第二句中,主詞是some of the books而不只是the books,因此我們要先把共同的部分改成which,保留some of,變成some of which,然後再接到第1句的books 後面。
3. I rent a house.
4. The door of the house is damaged. →I rent a house, the door of which is damaged.
→I rent a house whose door is damaged.
  在這個例子中,重複的部分是the house,但事實上第二句的主詞是the door of the house,不只是the house,因此把the house改成which,然後保留the door,形成the door of which。其實這種句子也可以使用所有格的關係代名詞whose,如上面改的第2句。
  以上兩種用法都比較常見於正式的寫作,通常口語上比較不會這樣用,但並沒有錯。注意這兩種用法都不能使用that(第二種原則上只會用which,因為如果是人稱,通常會用A's B,,改的話會用whose,如the girl's jacket改成whose jacket,非人的所有格才比較常用A of B),而且一定要用逗點分開。

• what和複合關係代名詞
  有一些關係代名詞可以連它要修飾的名詞都一起取代。請先看下面的例子:
1. This is the thing.
2. I need the thing. →This is the thing that I need.
→This is what I need.
  如果要修飾的名詞是沒有什麼意思的「東西」,那麼可以把它和後面的關係代名詞合起來變成一個what。請再看幾個例子:
3. What he says is true.
4. Tell me what you heard from him.
  另外,英文還有幾個複合關係代名詞:whoever, whomever, whosever, whichever, whatever,這幾個都含有any的意思,請先看下面的例子:
5. I don't need this book any more. Please give it to whoever needs it.
6. You can try to say hello to whomever you meet. That would be fun.
7. Here are two cellphones. You can take whichever you like.
8. All of these are free. Just take whatever you want.
  在此拿第5句來講解。這一句可以麻煩一點的寫成Please give it to anyone who needs it.,即whoever代替了anyone who。其他三個句子中也都有any的意思,如第8句是anything。像這種any... 加關係代名詞,可以用上述的複合關係代名詞來代替。若是「任何人」用whoever和whomever(當受詞時)、「任何人的」用whosever、「任何事物」用whatever、有選擇性的(有幾個讓你挑的)任一個(人或物)用whichever。

• 準關係代名詞
  英文中有三個原來是引導副詞子句的連接詞,被拿來做關係代名詞來使用,一般稱為準關係代名詞。這三個是:as, but, than,以下介紹它們的用法。先看as:
1. This is the same cup as my brother bought.
  如果要修飾的名詞前面有 the same、as 或such時,要用as代替原先的關係副詞。不過,如果是像1的情況,也有可能寫成:
2. This is the same cup that my brother bought.
  可以用that,但意思和用as不同。第1句的意思是「這個杯子和我哥買的那個一樣(是兩個外型相同的杯子)」,第2句是「這就是我哥買的杯子(就只有一個杯子)」。
  再來看but:
3. There are no parents but love their children.
but本身有否定的意思,因此but love是指「不愛」,我們也可以把第3句寫成:
4. There are no parents who don't love their children.
  所以在此but等於取代了who don't。
  最後來看than:
5. Don't give her more money than she really needs.
  如果要修飾的名詞前有比較級,那麼要用than代替原來的關係代名詞。如果沒有比較級,就要用which或that:
6. Don't give her the book that she doesn't need.

• 關係代名詞的省略
  如果你已經看過一些含有關係子句的句子,你可能會發現在某些句子中,你並沒有看到關係代名詞。沒錯,關係代名詞是可以省略的。關係代名詞能否省略的原則是:省略以後句子意義是否清楚完整、會不會造成讀者的誤解。先看以下例子:
1. I like the book which you bought yesterday. →I like the book you bought yesterday.
2. The man who is watching TV is my brother. →The man is watching TV is my brother.
(這是錯誤的改法!)
  在第1句中,很清楚的看出底線部分是關係子句,因此像這一類關係代名詞代替的是原來的受詞(you bought the book, the book是受詞)的情況下,是可以省略的。
  但是在第2句中,省略掉關係代名詞後,The man is watching TV看來就已經是一個完整句子,但後面卻還有is my brother,這會讓人看不清究竟這句的主要動詞是哪一個(這句的結構變成 S + V + C + V + C)。因此像這種關係代名詞是主詞的情況下(the man is watching TV, the man是主詞),是不可以省略的。
  另外如果關係子句是補充說明的用法,關係代名詞也不可以省略。因為在補充說明的用法中,關係代名詞已經用逗號隔開,有點像是獨立的一部分了,因此關係代名詞要保留起來。如果你忘記何謂補充的用法,請見下面這句:
3. Jostein Gaarder, who is author of Sophie's World, is my favorite writer.

• 關係子句的簡化
  關係子句除了可以省略關係代名詞外,還有進一步的簡化方法,讓句子更簡潔,以下介紹幾種關係子句的簡化法:
A. 關係代名詞 + be動詞
1. The student who is making a speech is Jack. →The student making a speech is Jack.
2. My mother finally found the vase that was broken by me. →My mother finally found the vase broken by me.
  如果關係子句的開頭是who/which/that + be動詞,可以直接省略掉它們。省略之後剩下的部分通常是帶有形容詞功用的東西,如第1句的making a speech這個動名詞有形容詞的功能,第2句省略後留下的是過去分詞,也有形容詞的作用。因此省略後還是維持原來關係子句所具有的形容詞的修飾功能。
  如果省略掉關係代名詞和be動詞之後,留下的是一個名詞,文法書上稱此為同位格,其實可視為關係子句的簡化。例如:
3. Mike Miller, who is a basketball player, has few fans in Taiwan. →Mike Miller, a basketball player, has few fans in Taiwan.
  在此,Mike Miller = a basketball player
B. 關係代名詞 + 一般動詞
4. The students who attend that school receive a good education. →The students attending that school receive a good education.
5. People who make a lot of money are not necessarily happy. →People making a lot of money are not necessarily happy.
  如果關係代名詞後面接的是一個普通動詞而不是be動詞,那麼簡化的方法是把關係代名詞省略掉,然後把後面的動詞改成動名詞讓剩下的部分仍具有形容詞的功能。
C. 關係代名詞是受詞
  前面兩種簡化法都是關係代名詞是原來句子的主詞的情況,那麼如果關係代名詞是受詞要如何簡化呢?請看下面的例子:
6. I need something.
7. I can eat it. →I need something that I can eat.
  在這樣的句子中,關係代名詞是符合上面提過的省略法(不是這裡的簡化),所以可以把句子改成I need something I can eat.。但其實還有更簡單的說法,即這一部分所談的「簡化」。在此,句1和句2的主詞是一樣的,我們可以把句2的主詞和助動詞省略掉,把剩下的動詞部分加上to 形成不定詞(有形容詞的功用),整句就變成I need something to eat.。再看一個例子:
8. I need a tool.
9. I can open the door with the tool. →I need a tool which I can open the door with. 未簡化
→I need a tool with which I can open the door. 未簡化
→I need a tool to open the door with. 簡化成不定詞
→I need a tool with which to open the door. 簡化但保留關係代名詞
  注意,如果是這類有介系詞的句子,要簡化成不定詞時,被省略的部分是關係代名詞+主詞+助動詞,介系詞仍然要留在後面。但也可以只省略主詞和助動詞,保留which,把介系詞提前,如上述的最後一種改法。
  如果要合併的兩句話的主詞不同,在簡化時不可以把第二句的主詞省略掉,因為那會造成意思上的差異。如:
10. He has no money.
11. His daughter can buy clothes with the money. →He has no money that his daughter can buy clothes with.
  這是沒有簡化的句子,如果我們照上面的方法簡化,句子會變成He has no money to buy clothes with.就變成他自己沒錢買衣服了。但是原意應該是他沒錢讓他女兒買衣服,所以要保留his daughter,整句改成He has no money for his daughter to buy clothes with.,即在his daughter前加for,放在不定詞之前。

• 關係子句用來修飾句子
  關係子句除了可用來修飾名詞/代名詞,還可以用來修飾整句話(或整個子句)。如下例:
1. He says he was sick yesterday, which can't be true.
2. She always laughs at me, which makes me very angry.
  這種用關係子句修飾句子的用法通常出現在口語,在正式的寫作就不適合使用。那要怎麼辦呢?就分成兩句或者用連接詞(如and)接起來或改一下句子吧。

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